Participation in the MOOC


There has been much writing about MOOCs – Massive Open Online Courses – lately, but little about their interaction design. This may seem unsurprising; there is simply no groundbreaking UX work on Coursera or EDx. But I do believe that part of the success of the MOOC is because they are better designed than predecessors. Just compare the experience of the MOOC, with much of the ‘open courseware’ that can be found on i-Tunes University. The mediocre live recordings of u1niversity classes that were so common there have been replaced by special purpose, high quality materials. MOOCs also allow for an inkling of educational interactivity: through tests and assignments and, sometimes, peer feedback. It seems likely that this brittle marriage between UX and educational design contributed to the tipping point for online learning that MOOCs, appear to embody. So it is worthwhile to consider how we can improve interaction design of the MOOC further. To explore the room for improvement I asked my social interaction design class to come up with designs for MOOC’s that would increase engagement and participation rates, would strengthen educational interactivity and would encourage peer feedback and (informal) peer learning. In this post I discuss four solution-directions which they threw back at me.

Chunk and Unlock

UX-designers know the power of chunking and chunking is important in educational design too. Unfortunately currently MOOCs do not chunk learning well. They do better than open courseware: typically lectures are sliced into separate video-lessons of about 5-15 minutes. But these chunks of knowledge transfer are seldom interlaced with knowledge activation chunks such as small assignments or quizzes. So there is a weekly ‘listen-do cycle’ to most MOOCs, which seems hardly a suitable rate for online learning. No wonder so many users skip the ‘do-part’. One way to resolve this is to use the power of unlock. Rather that offering the materials in a fixed, weekly pace, the user can unlock a new instruction video by doing a small assignment or quiz, or by reviewing someone else’s work. An interesting variant could be social unlock. Users are matched to a partner, and both have to contribute something to a joint assignment before they can unlock the next instruction materials. Of course random matching may go wrong in a learning environment with many lurkers, but users could be matched to other users who unlock at the same pace or who check in to unlock simultaneously.

Improve the connection between content and community

Once, schools used to favor the principle of separation of learning and social peer engagement. In the classroom, you would listen to the teachers; during the breaks you could talk to classmates; which was not considered learning. Such schools do still exist, but they are hardly considered as best practice. Still, separation of learning and community is in the basic design of most MOOC platforms. MOOCs offer materials for individual learning with a hyperlink to a forum – elsewhere in cyberspace – where learners can engage with one another about the content of the course. So the coupling between community and content is as loose as it could possibly be. As a solution, my students suggested to take a better look at Massive Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Games (MMORGs) – which inspired the term MOOC in the first place. Players in those games take on joint challenges with division of labor. Communication around the challenges, encourages peer learning, the forum is not a separate place anymore and community emerges around the content. Although this seems ideal, it can be hard to design such challenges and set up the special purpose UX to support it. A less demanding solution to the same problem is to couple forum entries to specific content and challenges within the MOOC. This is done well on code academy where every exercise has its own forum entry. One of my students went as far as suggesting a dynamic forum coupled to the video. Users could add questions to specific points in the video instruction, which are then answered by other users watching the same video on a later time.

Improve online identity, presence and urgency

One well-known social web pattern which is rare in the MOOC is showing the presence of other people, and lowering the threshold of informal interaction with them. Consider yourself looking at a video in an MOOC: do you have an idea of whom else is watching this video at the time? Currently not. But supporting online identity and social presence – in a properly designed way – may increase participation and engagement a lot. Profiles on MOOCs are weak and too much focused on the narrow role of the user as a learner. One of my students suggested deep integration of MOOC platforms with the professional networking site: LinkedIn. Don’t learning and professional development go hand in hand? How about a ‘Dream jobs’ profile, accompanied by MOOC achievements? Other students suggested increasing the presence of other users through live forums, connecting community and content in the here and now. Maybe videos could be started only after a critical mass of learners say (say 5) signed in to it, so live chat would become an opportunity and study groups may be formed in a natural way.

Level the playing field

In a MOOC it seems as there is a single expert and many, many (equal), novices learning from the expert. This is a myth. Many users of MOOCs are far from novice and many even bring additional skills to those of the super expert. But the myth, the ‘bright light’ radiating from the super expert in the MOOC may hinder participation from semi-expert and peer learning. Do you feel free to try on your own ideas when an expert is watching you? In response, my students came up with ways to level the playing field, in the hope more participants of the MOOC would feel like playing. One solution was to give special status to expert users. Possibly they can provide extra content, so the MOOC becomes more of a shared place. Another solution could be to stimulate creativity, and to create community around creative exercises. Exercises that do not have a right or wrong to them might help challenging the ‘one expert model’ many MOOC users get from its design. A final avenue could be to create a large joint project, a barn raising challenge. Users could create something together, like in Wikipedia, which adds meaning to the course materials, which can handle contributions from people with a large rage of expertise and skill and which can give a feeling of joint discovery and achievement.

Where do suggestions like these bring us? Will MOOCs become interactive education places where joint learning takes place, when their designers take up these suggestions from my students? Maybe. Hopefully. But what I expect most is a diversification of online a d blended learning possibilities and experiences, from ‘simple’ open educational content, to well-designed educational games, and many other blended forms of on-line and off-line learning. Following, Manovich, we could draw a parallel of online learning today, to the cinema of the 1900s and say that MOOCs are one among many experimental forms that will one day define the ‘language of blended learning’ and will fill the ecosystem of educational forms of the times to come. This diversification can be exciting in itself, but what I am really looking forward too is finding out how the marriage of educational and user experience design develops.


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